Medical Definitions

Pradaxa Vs Warfarin: Risks and Benefits

Pradaxa was first approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in the fall of 2010 for the treatment of atrial fibrillation from a cause other than a heart valve issue. As a blood-thinner, Pradaxa reduces the ability of blood to clot, thereby reducing the risk of stroke and other related issues, such as…

Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Internal Bleeding

Patients who take the anti-clotting drugs Xarelto or Pradaxa may be at an increased risk of several types of serious internal bleeding. Although all anti-clotting drugs carry with them an increased risk of serious bleeding, Pradaxa carries with it additional risk due to the lack of a quick antidote to the anticoagulant effect that it has….

Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS) – Antidepressant Birth Defect

What is Aortic Valve Stenosis? Aortic valve stenosis (AVS), or aortic stenosis, occurs when a heart’s aortic valve constricts and becomes narrowed and even deformed. AVS is more common among adults, but can appear in the form of a congenital birth defect in infants and young children. The constriction is caused by thickened and fused…

Gastroschisis Repair Surgery

What is Gastroschisis repair? Gastroschisis repair is surgery to correct a birth defect that causes an opening in the skin and muscles covering the belly (abdominal wall). The opening allows intestines and sometimes other organs to bulge outside the belly. The surgeon places the organs back inside the belly and closes the belly wall. Description…

Omphalocele Repair Surgery

What is Omphalocele Repair Surgery? Omphalocele repair involves surgery to repair a birth defect in the wall of the belly (abdomen) in which all or parts of the small intestine, liver, and large intestine stick outside the belly in a thin sac. organs come out through an opening at the base of the umbilical cord. The…

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)

PML is a rare disorder that damages the material that covers and protects the nerves in the white matter of the brain. It is caused by the reactivation of the JC virus in the body and it infects the brain. JC virus is commonly acquired in childhood, but most people do not develop PML. The…

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) Norwood

Author: Richard G Ohye, MD, Head, Division of Pediatric Cardiovascular Surgery; Program Director, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Fellowship, University of Michigan Medical Center Coauthor(s): Ralph S Mosca, MD, Director, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, New York Presbyterian Medical Center; Edward L Bove, MD, Associate Director, PICU, CS Mott Children’s Hospital; Director, Department of…

Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV)

What is Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV)? Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a form of congenital heart disease where both of the great arteries connect (in whole or in part) to the right ventricle (RV). In double outlet right ventricle (DORV) the aorta rises from the right ventricle (the chamber of the heart that…

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)

Author: P Syamasundar Rao, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston; Director, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital; Professor of Pediatrics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas Coauthor(s): Daniel R Turner, MD, Associate Professor of Pediatric Cardiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Carman…